Thomas Oswald Aerospace Software

Software and research for aerospace applications

Numerical Electromagnetics and Field Calculation

Unfortunately most problems of practical use can not be solved analytically, because their geometry is too complex. In these cases, one has to resort to numerical methods. Fortunately there exists a proven uniqueness theorem which states that any solution which can be found for such a system, is the solution of the system, irrespective of the method which was used to find it. This is the basis for the field of Numerical Electromagnetics.

There are two categories of Numerical Methods to solve electromagnetic systems. There are the methods in the time domain and the methods in the frequency, or Fourier domain. Both methods have their merits and a combination of both methods often yields the best results. The most famous methods in the frequency domain are the Method of Moments (MoM) and the Finite Element Method (FEM).

Wiregrid Model

Wiregrid Model

The MoM is especially well suited for Problems which have their boundaries in infinity, like the computation of an antenna radiation pattern in open space. Not so well suited it is for problems which include dielectric parts within the structure.

The FEM is very efficient for Computations of systems within closed spaces, like wave guides or a microwave oven. This method also deals very good with different matters. It is often not the method of choice for radiation problems, like an antenna in open space, because an infinite space can not be partitioned into small volume elements. In such cases, the volume has to be bounded artificially and a near to far field converter has to be used to compute the radiation patterns.

The Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method is the classical method in time domain. The volume of interest is partitioned into small volume elements or cells. Each cell has its material constants, which define the matter within the cell. The field equations are solved directly for each cell in time steps. Hence one gets the evolution of the fields in time as a result of this method. The advantages and disadvantages are similar to the FEM.

Both method categories exist in similar form in computational fluid dynamics.

More and more, hybrid solvers enter the stage. hybrid solvers combine different methods, thus combining the advantages of both methods. So it is possible to combine FEM and MoM. The volume within the structure is computed by FEM, while the interaction between structure elements which are far apart, are computed by using the MoM, as well as the boundaries.

We have the necessary tools and the necessary experience to perform all types of calculations and we offer this service to companies in the business of electrical engineering which want to out-source this task cost efficiently in order to be able to concentrate on their core-competency. Since a calculation of this type is a very complex procedure, details have to be discussed before the time requirements and costs can be estimated. Please contact us for further details.


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Publications

First author

Oswald, T.H.,W. Macher, G.Fischer, and H. Rucker (2004), First results of stereo/waves antenna calibration, Technical Report of the Space Research Institute/Austrian Academy of Science, Nr. 160.

Oswald, T.H. (2005), Electromagnetic waves in space and the stereo/waves experimentMaster’s thesis, University of Graz.

Oswald, T.H., W. Macher, G. Fischer, H. Rucker, J. Bougeret, M. Kaiser, and K. Goetz (2005), Numerical analysis of the stereo waves antennas: first resultsin Proc. Planetary radio emmission workshop VI, Graz, Austrian Academy of Sciences Press, Vienna.

Oswald, T.H., W. Macher, G.Fischer, and H. Rucker (2005), Results of stereo/waves antenna calibration, using a refined spacecraft model (design 1)Technical Report of the Space Research Institute/Austrian Academy of Science, Nr. 167.

Oswald, T.H., H. Rucker, W. Macher, G.Fischer, and U. Taubenschuss (2005), Direction findingTechnical Report of the Space Research Institute/Austrian Academy of Science, Nr. 168.

Oswald, T.H., W. Macher, G. Fischer, H. O. Rucker, U. Taubenschuss, J. L. Bougeret, M. L. Kaiser, K. Goetz (2005), STEREO/WAVES antennas calibration: Implications for radio source triangulationAGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 12/2005.

Oswald, T.H., H. Rucker, W. Macher, G.Fischer, and U. Taubenschuss (2006), Aspekte des direction findings, Technical Report of the Space Research Institute/Austrian Academy of Science, Nr. 173.

Oswald, T.H., W. Macher, G. Fischer, H. O. Rucker, U. Taubenschuss, J. L. Bougeret, A. Lecacheux, M. L. Kaiser, K. Goetz (2006), Antenna calibration of the STEREO/WAVES antennas in the frequency range of the fixed frequency receiver, Solar Orbiter RPW workshop; 01/2006.

Oswald, T.H., H.O. Rucker, W. Macher (2006), Aspects of the RPW antennas of Solar Orbiter, Solar Orbiter Meeting, Solar Orbiter RPW workshop; 01/2006.

Oswald, T.H., H.O. Rucker, W. Macher (2006), On the calibration of spacecraft antennas, Solar Orbiter RPW workshop, 01/2006.

Oswald, T.H., W. Macher, G. Fischer, H.O. Rucker, J.-L. Bougeret, M.L. Kaiser, K. Goetz (2006), Numerical analysis of the STEREO WAVES antennas: First results, Planetary Radio Emissions VI; 01/2006.

Oswald, T.H., H. Rucker, W. Macher, and the SOLAR ORBITER RPW team (2007), Aspects of the rpw antennas of solar orbiter, in Proc. of the Second Solar Orbiter WorkshopAthens, Greece, ESA SP-641.

Oswald, T.H., W. Macher, H. O. Rucker (2007), Numerical calibration of spacecraft antennas including 2 simple models of space plasma08/2007.

Oswald, T.H., W. Macher, H. O. Rucker (2007), The physics of the plasma sheath with application to the STEREO spacecraft08/2007.

Oswald, T.H., W. Macher, H. Rucker, G. Fischer, U. Taubenschuss, J. Bougeret, A. Lecacheux, M. Kaiser, and K. Goetz (2009), Various methods of calibration of the stereo/waves antennas, J. Adv. Space Res., doi:10.1016/j.asr.2008.07.017. 

Oswald, T.H. (2010), Antennas in plasma: Numerical calculation, Ph.D. thesis, Karl-Franzens Universitaet Graz.

Oswald, T.H., H. O. Rucker, W. Macher, G. Fischer, M. Sampl and (submitted 2010)Numerical calibration of spacecraft antennas in isotropic cold plasma with an application to STEREO/WAVES, Radio Science. 

Oswald, T.H., M. Sampl, H. O. Rucker, W. Macher, D. Plettemeier,W. S. Kurth  (2011), Numerical calibration of the JUNO/Waves antenna properties, EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2011, Nantes, France; 10/2011

Oswald, T.H., M. Sampl, H. O. Rucker, D. Plettemeier, M. Maksimovic (2012),  Numerical studies of the Solar Orbiter RPW antennasEuropean Geosciences Union General Assembly 2012, Vienna, Austria; 04/2012

Oswald, T.H., M. Sampl, H.O. Rucker, W. Macher, G. Fischer, M. Maksimovic (2011), Preliminary numerical studies of the Solar Orbiter RPW antennas, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2011, Vienna, Austria; 04/2011


Co-author

Bale, S., R. Ullrich, K. Goetz, B. Cecconi, M. Dekkali, W. Macher, R. E. Manning, T. H. Oswald, and M. Pulupa (2007), The electric antennas for the stereo/waves experimentSpace Science Reviews, 136, doi:10.1007/s11214-007-9251-x.

Bougeret, J.L., K. Goetz, M. L. Kaiser, S. D. Bale, P. J. Kellogg, M. Maksimovic, N. Monge, S. J. Monson, P. L. Astier, S. Davy, M. Dekkali, J. J. Hinze, R. E. Manning, E. Aguilar-Rodriguez, X. Bonnin, C. Briand, I. H. Cairns, C. A. Cattell, B. Cecconi, J. Eastwood, R. E. Ergun, J. Fainberg, S. Hoang, K. E. J. Huttunen, S. Krucker, A. Lecacheux, R. J. MacDowall, W. Macher, A. Mangeney, C. A. Meetre, X. Moussas, Q. N. Nguyen, T. H. Oswald, M. Pulupa, M. J. Reiner, P. A. Robinson, H. Rucker, C. Salem, O. Santolik, J. M. Silvis, R. Ullrich, P. Zarka, I. Zouganelis (2008), S/WAVES: The Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation on the STEREO Mission, Space Science Reviews 01/2008; 136(1):487-528. DOI: 10.1007/s11214-007-9298-8.

Khodachenko, M., T. H. Oswald, W. Macher, H. O. Rucker (2006), On the effect of space plasma upon the receiving characteristics of spacecraft antennas01/2006.

Macher, W., T.H. Oswald, H. Rucker, and G. Fischer (2006), Stereo-waves antennas: Reception properties in the quasi-static frequency range, Technical Report of the Space Research Institute/Austrian Academy of Science, Nr. 178.

Macher, W., T.H. Oswald, G. Fischer, and H. Rucker (2007), Rheometry of multi-port spaceborn antennas including mutual antenna capacitances and application to stereo/waves., Meas. Sci. Technol., 18, 3731–3742.

Macher, W., and T.H. Oswald (2011), Radius correction formula for capacitances and effective length vectors of monopole and dipole antenna systemsRadio Science 01/2011; 46:RS1011. 

Panchenko, M., H. O. Rucker, W. Macher, B. Cecconi, T. H. Oswald, G. Fischer (2010), STEREO/WAVES antennas calibrated by AKR09/2010.

Panchenko, M., W. Macher, H.O. Rucker, G. Fischer, T. H. Oswald, B. Cecconi, M. Maksimovic (2014),  In-Flight calibration of STEREO-B/WAVES antenna system, Radio Science.

Plettemeier, D., H. O. Rucker, T.H. Oswald, M. Sampl, G. Fischer, W. Macher, M. Maksimovic (2009),  Characterization of the RPW Electric Antenna System aboard Solar OrbiterAmerican Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2009; 12/2009.

Rucker, H.O., W. Macher, G. Fischer, T.H. Oswald, J.-L. Bougeret, M. Kaiser, and K. Goetz (2005), Analysis of spacecraft antenna systems: Implications for stereo/wavesAdv. Space Res., 36, 1530–1533, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.07.060.

Rucker, H.O., T.H. Oswald, W. Macher (2006), Considerations of Solar Orbiter electric antenna modeling, Solar Orbiter RPW workshop; 01/2006.

Rucker, H.O., T.H. Oswald, W. Macher, and the SOLAR ORBITER RPW team (2007) , Considerations of solar orbiter electric antenna modeling, in Proc. of the Second Solar Orbiter Workshop, Athens, Greece, ESA SP-641.

Rucker, H.O., T.H. Oswald, M. Sampl, W. Macher, D. Plettemeier (2009), Solar orbiter antenna system calibrationThird Solar Orbiter Workshop, Sorrento, Italia; 05/2009.

Rucker, H.O., M. Sampl, M. Panchenko, T. Oswald, D. Plettemeier, M. Maksimovic, G. Fischer (2010), Calibration of antenna systems: The effective antenna vector and its implications on the spacecraft design and radio data analysisEuropean Planetary Science Congress 2010; 09/2010.

Rucker, H.O., M. Sampl, M. Panchenko, G. Fischer, W. Macher, D. Plettemeier, T.H. Oswald (2010), Spacecraft antenna system calibration: an improvement of radio data observation and analysis, EGU General Assembly 2010, Vienna, Austria; 05/2010.

Rucker, H.O., M. Sampl, M. Panchenko, T.H. Oswald, D. Plettemeier, M. Maksimovic, W. Macher (2011),  Implications of antenna system calibration on spacecraft design and radio data analysisPlanetary Radio Emissions VII, Edited by H.O. Rucker, W.S. Kurth, P. Louarn, G. Fischer, 12/2011: pages 475-485; Austrian Academy of Sciences Press., ISBN: 978-3-7001-7125-6.

Sampl, M., W. Macher, C. Gruber, T.H. Oswald, H.O. Rucker, and M. Mogilevsky (2009), Resonance spacecraft antenna calibration: Rheometry and numerical simulations, in 2009 Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference, Burleigh Court Conference Centre, Loughborough University, United Kingdom, doi: 10.1109/LAPC.2009.5352452.

Sampl, M., W. Macher, C. Gruber, T.H. Oswald, H.O. Rucker (2009), Rheometry, the effective length vector and the Resonance missione & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik 05/2009; 126(5):28-32.

Sampl, M., W. Macher, Ch. Gruber, T.H. Oswald, H.O. Rucker (2009), Rheometry and numerical simulations of antennas onboard the Resonance spacecraft, EGU General Assembly 2009, Vienna, Austria; 04/2009.

M. Sampl, T. H. Oswald, H. O. Rucker, D. Plettemeier, M. Maksimovic, W. Macher (2010), First calibration results and antenna placement studies of the RPW ANT instrument on Solar Orbiter, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2010; 12/2010.

Sampl, M., W. Macher, C. Gruber, T.H. Oswald, H.O. Rucker (2010),  Final results of the Resonance spacecraft electrical field sensors calibration effortThe Inner Magnetosphere and the Auroral Zone Physics Symposium, Moscow, Russia; 06/2010.

Sampl, M., W. Macher, C. Gruber, T.H. Oswald, H.O. Rucker (2010), Final results of the Resonance spacecraft calibration effort, EGU General Assembly 2010, Vienna, Austria; 05/2010.

Sampl, M.,  H.O. Rucker, T.H. Oswald, D. Plettemeier, M. Maksimovic, W. Macher (2011), Numerical simulations of the Solar Orbiter antenna system RPW-ANT, Planetary Radio Emissions VII, Edited by H.O. Rucker, W.S. Kurth, P. Louarn, G. Fischer, 12/2011: pages 487-494; Austrian Academy of Sciences Press., ISBN: 978-3-7001-7125-6.

Sampl, M., T.H. Oswald, H.O. Rucker, R Karlsson, D. Plettemeier, W. S. Kurth (2011), First results of the JUNO/Waves antenna investigations, Proc. Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conf. (LAPC); 11/2011.

Sampl, M.,  T.H. Oswald, H.O. Rucker, G. Fischer, D. Plettemeier, W.S. Kurth, W. Macher (2011), First assessment of the JUNO/Waves antenna properties04/2011.

Sampl, M., T.H. Oswald, M. Kapper, D. Plettemeier, H.O. Rucker, W.S. Kurth (2012),  The true properties of the Waves antennas onboard the Juno S/C, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2012, Vienna, Austria.

Sampl, M., T.H. Oswald, H.O. Rucker (2012),  State of the art and future developments in calibration of spaceborne electric field sensorsDPG-Frühjahrstagung 2012, Stuttgart, Germany.

Sampl, M., W. Macher, C. Gruber, T. Oswald, H.O. Rucker, M. Mogilevsky (2012),  Calibration of Electric Field Sensors Onboard the Resonance Satellite, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 02/2012; 60:267 - 273.

 

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